Ashley, W.S., A.J. Krmenec, and R. Schwantes, 2008: Vulnerability due to nocturnal tornadoes. Weather and Forecasting, 23, 795-807. Abstract
Krmenec, A.J. , A. Esparza, 2000: Large City Interaction in the United States Urban System, Urban Studies, 37(4): 691-709, 2000. Abstract
Northern Illinois University, David Raymond Technology in Teaching Grant, Audio-Visual Explanations: Enriching the Classroom through Emerging Technology, PI with Bentley M. and P. Young, 2006-2007.
"Interpreting the Agronomic, Economic, and Ecological Value of High Spatial-Resolution Crop Environment Information," Deere & Corporation, 2001/2002. Summary
Ashley, W.S., A.J. Krmenec, and R. Schwantes, 2008: Vulnerability due to nocturnal tornadoes. Weather and Forecasting, 23, 795-807.
This study investigates the human vulnerability caused by tornadoes that occurred between sunset and sunrise from 1880 to 2007. Nocturnal tornadoes are theorized to enhance vulnerability because they are difficult to spot and occur when the public tends to be asleep and in weak building structures. Results illustrate that the nocturnal tornado death rate over the past century has not shared the same pace of decline as those events transpiring during the daytime. From 1950 to 2005, a mere 27.3% of tornadoes were nocturnal, yet 39.3% of tornado fatalities and 42.1% of killer tornado events occurred at night. Tornadoes during the overnight period (local midnight to sunrise) are 2.5 times as likely to kill as those occurring during the daytime hours. It is argued that a core reason why the national tornado fatality toll has not continued to decrease in the past few decades is due to the vulnerability of these nocturnal events. This vulnerability to nocturnal tornadoes is magnified when other factors such as escalating mobile (or “manufactured”) home stock and an increasing and spreading population are realized. Unlike other structure types that show no robust demarcation between nocturnal and daytime fatalities, nearly 61% of fatalities in mobile homes take place at night revealing this housing stock’s distinct nocturnal tornado vulnerability. Further, spatial analysis illustrates that the American South’s high nocturnal tornado risk is an important factor leading to the region’s high fatality rate. The investigation emphasizes a potential break in the tornado warning dissemination system utilized currently in the United States.
Krmenec, A.J. , A. Esparza2000: Large City Interaction in the United States Urban System, Urban Studies, 37(4): 691-709, 2000
Mounting interest in the global system of cities has led many scholars to portray large, world-class cities as control points in the global economy. From this position, they govern global banking, finance and international corporate relations with the assistance of advanced business services and telecommunications. While large cities have taken on many global functions, recent research has cast them only as outposts in the global economy and pays little attention to their role in regional and national economies. This paper explores the role of five large US cities in regional and national economies. Using primary trade data for five high-order business services, we identify the extent to which these large cities trade with other large cities of the US urban system, smaller-sized cities, and test statistically the effect that firm attributes and physical characteristics of the city system have on shaping the areal extent of large city interaction (trade). The results indicate that: trade is consistently biased towards other large cities; the size of origin cities is associated with the size of destination cities; and, distance more so than destination city size plays the dominant role in shaping large city patterns of trade.
"Interpreting the Agronomic, Economic, and Ecological Value of High Spatial-Resolution Crop Environment Information," Deere & Corporation, 2001/2002.
Summary: By many accounts, the promise of precision agriculture is still just that, a promise. Led initially by the development of positioning technologies (GIS and GPS), precision agriculture remains technology-rich, but information-poor. Current controller and positioning technologies make it possible to vary tillage depth and tool positions, nutrient application rates, plant spacing and genetics placement, irrigation intensity, herbicide application, and even certain types of crop harvesting down to spatial scales of less than a meter. The effectiveness of these technologies is constrained, however, by a lack of crop environment information databases and decision tools, and by a general lack of understanding of the value of such information. This project explores literature from agronomy, crop and soil science, ecology, agricultural economics and other fields to answer three fundamental questions:
-what crop environment information is necessary for advanced precision management?
-what is the appropriate level of spatial resolution for these data and the decision models?
-how might the use of such data and decision models improve the agronomic, economic, ecological, and risk dimensions of modern food, oil, and fibre production systems?